Tuesday, 17 April 2018


Flour mixtures are products produce from flour with the addition of other ingredients. Flour mixtures can be grouped into the following.
  •  Cake
  • Pastry
  • Biscuits
  • Scones
  • Bread
  • Butter

The basic ingredients in the preparation and serving of flour mixtures are flour, fat, sugar, liquid flavouring and seasoning.
1.     FLOUR: Provide the structure for bake products in pastry or dough by the gluten (protein) in the flour.
2.     Fat or shortening: Fats add flavor to baked product, shorten them and make the products tender light and smooth e.g butter, margarine, cooking oil.
3.     Sugar: Sweetens the mixture improves the texture, develops colour and crispress and acts as food for yeast.
4.     Egg: Are used for leavening colouring shortening, nutritive value and strength.
5.     Liquid: Helps to bind the ingredients gelatinizes solve of the stand and develops the gluten e.g. milk, water, fruit juices.
6.     Flavouring and seasoning: Salt is the most important seasoning used in flour mixture. It helps to develop the flavour of the produce and helps to set the gluten. Other favour  used in  flour mixtures and seeds, nuts fruit juices, honey.

Career in food and nutrition

Through the study of food and nutrition so many opportunities are opened to the nutrition for example, nutrition can be employed in the teaching profession. The major causes of nutrition is ignorance about the science of mal-nutrition, the only competent person to impact this knowledge are the mal-nutritionist such person can be employed in schools where the subject is though under the umbrella of HOME ECONOMICS in schools of NURSING AND HEALTH TECHNOLOGY and the MEDICAL SCHOOLS.
Nutritionist can also be employed in the hospitals as dicticious: They will be responsible for the nutritional counseling of the patients who need dict therapy.
There are many nutritional diseases that need to be investigated. This is an aspect after referred to as clinical nutrition, and nutritionists can also be employed in such research area, the problem of food shortage cannot be4 solved without attention to adequate good storage and processing these areas comes under food science, food technology, and food engineering. Nutritionists can also be involved in these areas and another area that can be explored by the nutritionist is the food service and management.
Through the training undergone nutritionist can set up catering services and be self employed. This is an area where many nutritionist can be found, the service of nutritionist are also required in the rural areas where they assist in enlightening the people working in this capacity are called community nutrition. They can also be employed as matron in some institution was they will be responsible for the planning of menus, for the student at higher institution. Nutritionist can be involved in food research and development through this they will help in discovery of new methods of utilizing our various food stuff. Thereby broadening the taste of the people, the various career opened to the nutritionist are summarized below.
  • ·        Teaching
  • ·        Health clinic
  • ·        Food science
  • ·        Food technology
  • ·        Diatotics
  • ·        Community nutrition
  • ·        Food resource and development
  • ·        Catering & services
  • ·        Matron
  • ·        Institution


      Vegetarians are those people who do not eat animal flesh of fish and mostly eats foods that come from plants, like grains, fruits, vegetables, and nuts. There are three types of vegetarian.
1.     LACTO-OVO-VEGETARIANS: These are people who do not eat the flesh of animal, fish or poultry, but take milk, milk products and eggs in addition to vegetable which they consume in generous amounts.
2.     LACTO-VEGETARIANS: These people do not eat the flesh of animals, fish, poultry or eggs. However they take milk, milk products together with vegetables.
3.     STRICT VEGETARIANS: These people are also known as VEGANS, they do not eat the flesh of animals, poultry and fish as well as all the animal or dairy products. They eat only vegetable i.e. plant foods.


Milk is a cream liquid formed by all female mammals use for feeding their young. Milk can be produced from cows, horses, goats, ewes, sheep’s, monkeys, dog’s e.t.c.; the most commonly used is cow milk. Milk is regarded as nature’s perfect food but this is only tone as for babies, the nutrients are not in the correct proportion for adults.
          The proportion of carbohydrates is low and it is also lacking in iron and vitamin C. Milk is extremely valuable in the diet of invalids and convalescent on the account of its food value. It is readily digested.

Nutritive value of milk

1.     Protein: The principal protein or major protein is casein others are albumen and globin
2.     Carbohydrate: This is present in the form of simple sugar called LACTOSE.
3.     Fat: It exists in the form of a very fine emulsim and it is easily digested.
4.     Mineral salt: It is rich in calcium for building bones and also phosphorus and the amount of iron is small.
5.     Vitamins: Fat soluble vitamins A & D are present vitamin B (thiamine) and B2 (Riboflavin) B12 and small quantity of vitamin C which can be destroyed easily if milk is boiled, pasteurized of left standing in sunlight.
6.     Water: Forms the largest proportion of milk other substances are either dissolute or help in suspension by the water.

     When milk enters the stomach is separates into solid (lots of casein and liquid due to the action of rennin) on the casein digestibility depends on the size of the dots forms, large dots make digestion difficult.

Ways of making milk more digestion
1.     Dilution:
a.     Water
b.     Lime juice
2.     Accretion:
a.     Soda water
3.     By eating with solid food or thick drink e.g. porridge.
4.     Boiled milk dots more slowly and giried a less dens dot than raw milk.

Types of milk
1.     Fresh whole milk: This is the milk that is obtained directly from the cow in which none of the nutrients have been removed.
2.     Skimmed milk: The fat content has been removed. It is therefore made predominately of protein, carbohydrates, mineral and vitamin.
3.     Evaporated milk: This is whole milk from which about 60% of the water content has been removed.
4.     Dried or powdered milk: Over 90% of the water content has been remove and it is then milled to powder form.
5.     Condense milk: This is evaporated milk to which a safe and suitable nutritive sweetener usually sugar has been added so it is sweeter and thicker than evaporated milk.
6.     Filled milk: This is a combination of skimmed milk and vegetable fat or water, non fat dry milk and vegetable fat.

1.     Evaporation
2.     Dehydration
3.     Sterilization
4.     Pasteurization

Monday, 16 April 2018


          Condiment and seasoning are used in cooking to enhance the natural flavor of food. They include spices, herbs, salt, and food additives.
Herbs: Are the leaves of plant example are garlic, thyme, mint, parsley.
Spices: Are derived from the roots, fruits, flower seed and the bark of plant example are ginger, pepper.
Classification of herbs & spices
Herbs and spices are classified into two main groups
1.     Natural
2.     Artificial
Natural herbs and spices
          Natural herbs and spices are used directly as derive from the plant without subjecting them to any industrial processing

Example of nature herbs
1.     African lemon grass
2.     Bitter  leaf
3.     Tea bush (Efinrin In Yoruba)

Example of nature Spices
1.     African nutmeg
2.     African black pepper
3.     Locust beans
4.     Ferment locust
5.     Onions
6.     Ginger
7.     Mustard seed
8.     Red pepper

Artificial Herbs and Spices

          Artificial herbs and spices are produced industrially after some processing. Example of artificial herbs and spices
1.     Curry powder
2.     Thyme
3.     Seasoning
4.     Vinegar

Uses of herbs and spices
1.     To improves the flavor, taste, texture and appearance of food.
2.     To tenderizer food.
For garnishing

Who is a lactating mother?

A lactating mother is one who breast feed a baby; she is also called a nursing mother.

Nutritional needs of a lactation mothers

1.     Protein: Additional protein such as meet, liver, fish, offal, beans, and eggs, must be consumed by lactating mothers to take care of lost of breast feeding.
2.     Carbohydrate: Energy food like bread, cereals, rice, yam, are needed in order not to become easily tired.
3.     Vitamins: A lactating mother needs vitamin B food such as milk, egg, liver, cereals nuts.
4.     Mineral salt: Especially calcium, iron, such as milk, liver, meat, eggs, green lea, vegetable are also needed in order to supply the mother body with blood for the formation of the body tissues and teeth
5.     Fat & Oil: Are necessary for the lactating mother, such as palm oil, butter, fish, and liver oil.


Pineapple drink

Meat stew

Fish, liver & shrimps



Vegetable soup




Milk & sugar

Pawpaw slice


Orange drink 

Tuesday, 27 March 2018

The Reasons Agriculture is Important

        Why is agriculture important? The concept of 'food security' is fundamentally important, and for that reason, agriculture is important. The task of feeding its people has been perhaps the first priority of its rulers throughout history. As such, agriculture is considered to be the very basis of political and social stability of a nation since times immemorial.

Moreover, the agricultural sector plays an important role in the sphere of providing large scale employment to people. Large and moderately large farms employ workers to undertake the various jobs relating to cultivation of crops and care of farm animals. In most of the countries of the world, agriculture still remains the biggest sector responsible for the employing and feeding a large percentage of the population.

Agriculture is also important from the point of view of appraising the standard of a country's development, based on the competence of its farmers. Poorly trained farmers cannot apply the advanced methods and new technologies. The prominence of science and technology in the development of agriculture is quite clear from the words of Deng Xiaoping -

The development of agriculture depends first on policy, and second on science. There is neither any limit to developments in science and technology, nor to the role that they can play in the field of agricultural growth'.

Though agriculture often plays a contributory role in the 'Gross Domestic Product' - GDP - of most countries, it nevertheless requires a substantial boost from both the local and the international community.

Agriculture is traditionally based on bulk manufacturing. Harvesting is done once a season, most of the times, and stocked and used later. In fact, some thinkers opine that people have begun to adopt 'batch processing' and 'stocking' in manufacturing, as a result of the practices from agricultural thinking. Before industrialization, people with the biggest stocks of food and other supplies were considered more stable, and they were able to face challenges of nature without having to starve.

So important is the role of agriculture that new concepts keep 'cropping up' to give the traditional activity a modern turn. One such new concept the world is raving about these days is - the importance of 'organic farming'. There is evidence that, apart from their numerous other benefits, organic farms are more sustainable and environmentally sound, giving agriculture a new dimension.

The importance of agricultural practices was further established when 'Organic food' began as a small movement decades ago, with gardeners and farmers rejecting the use of conventional non-organic practices. With the growth of the Organic food market now outpacing much of the food industry, many big companies have ventured into it. With the emergence of multi-national companies, and with the creation of a legal certification framework such as the Soil Association, there is every doubt that the very definition of organic food will change, making it more of a commercial activity than ever before!

In fact, modern agriculture has already undergone a sea-change from the ancient times. Today, the importance of agriculture lies in the fact that it is practiced both for subsistence as well as commercial reasons!.

Creating a Website With PHP

       The majority of the sites are made in PHP, yet some of them are made in Flash, ASP, Java, Python, Ruby or just in HTML, CSS and JavaScript, however these ones don't have a database or complex highlights. As opposed to HTML, PHP can build up association with databases, can create bland HTML code and you can even set your server to process all HTML documents with PHP so the genuine source code of your site can't be duplicated or seen.

-> There are various forms of PHP and there are additionally enormous contrasts between them like between PHP 4 and PHP 5 where another OOP show seemed together with enhanced MySQL and SQLite bolster and other minor highlights.

-> PHP records have a few expansions like .php, .phtml or .php5 and they can contain PHP code, yet additionally, HTML, JavaScript or CSS.

-> PHP can do a great deal of helpful things, for example, producing dynamic page content, making, opening, perusing, composing, erasing and shutting records on a server, gathering structure information, getting and sending treats, including erasing, altering information in the database, utilizing to control client get to, scrambling information and yielding pictures, PDF documents, Flash films, XHTML and XML content documents.

-> Regardless of the possibility that PHP is the most prominent programming dialect utilized for making sites, it has a few weaknesses: complex task requests involvement, open-source code, absence of troubleshooting apparatuses, bundle administration, profitability, it is always showing signs of change, irregularity and language structure.

Advantages Of PHP:
Open Source and Free to Use

PHP is open source which any one can utilize. The PHP web designers are giving specialized help and always refreshing the center PHP functionalities. PHP is accessible at free of cost under PHP General Public License and the greater part of its affiliated required programming resembles MySQL, Text Editors and Apache Server are likewise openly accessible, so it demonstrates extremely financially savvy for the site proprietors.

-> Easy to use and Easy to Code

Planned in an easy to understand way, PHP gives more adaptability than C, C++ and ASP and general causes in expanding movement to the site. It has a lucid and effectively justifiable linguistic structure. Its code is installed in the HTML source code and it depends on C/C++. In this manner, it is extremely commonplace and software engineers are exceptionally happy with coding with it.

-> High Compatibility and Platform Independent

PHP is profoundly perfect with driving working frameworks, web servers and numerous other diverse stages. PHP contents can keep running crosswise over working frameworks, for example, Linux, Windows, Solaris, OpenBSD, Mac OSX and so forth and furthermore offer help for all real web servers, for example, Apache, IIS, iPlanet and furthermore underpins every single real database including MySQL, dBase, IBM DB2, InterBase, FrontBase, ODBC, PostgreSQL, SQLite, and so on.

-> Intense and Versatile

Presently days PHP writing computer programs is utilized as a part of different web-based interfaces. Beginning from private company sites to tremendous authoritative web Applications, enlightening discussions, visiting stages, CRM arrangements, online business shopping baskets, group sites, e-business and database driven Apps can be effortlessly created utilizing PHP.

PHP projects can be utilized to outline any sort of sites and skilled to deal with web applications with a great deal of movement. Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia are couple of cases of gigantic went by long range interpersonal communication destinations made up of PHP system and on the grounds that it is server-side scripting, it can do anything that other CGI projects can do.

-> Speedier Developments and Faster Processing

PHP is intended to function admirably with the web, thus things like getting to the GET and POST and working with HTML and URLs are fabricated ins in the PHP dialect. This makes it truly compact and direct to build up a site.

It utilizes its own memory space and along these lines diminishes the stacking time and workload from the server. The handling speed is quick and web applications like Ecommerce, CRM, CMS and Forums are additionally grown speedier with it.

-> Exceptionally Secure

PHP and its stages are outfitted with various layers of security to anticipate dangers and vindictive assaults.

-> Substantial Supporting Developers Communities

PHP has a massive group of software engineers who frequently refresh PHP instructional exercises, documentations, online help gatherings and FAQs. In the event that you are searching for a specific content, odds are another client has just made something comparative. Similarly, on the off chance that you have made a capacity or thought of some code, other online client can utilize that.

-> Most Trusted and Proven Since Two Decades

PHP programming has been utilized since most recent two decades from its initiation in 1995. It is trusted by a huge number of business sites proprietors and designers and the rundown is developing step by step. It has additionally demonstrated its ability and flexibility by creating and keeping up probably the most very went by and prominent sites.

As a business site proprietor, you are intending to refresh and deal with your web functionalities powerfully; the main alternative for you is PHP Web Development. It's anything but difficult to utilize, sensibly estimated and coordinates numerous stages and a scope of online web applications.

-> Disadvantages Of PHP:

-> Open-source code

For the most part, everything that is immediately, can be stolen, and it is the same for PHP source code that can be stolen by your own customers or other web developers and to place it in different activities regardless of the possibility that you accompanied the first arrangement or thought.

-> Absence of troubleshooting apparatuses

In PHP you require troubleshooting apparatuses to discover blunders and notices, yet the issue is there are just a couple of them accessible in correlation with other programming dialects like Python.

-> Bundle administration

PHP has awful bundle administration interestingly with Python who can compose, construct and offer bundles to different developers so they can make associations between various tasks through alleged modules.

-> Always showing signs of change

New forms of PHP show up always with answers for bugs and with new highlights, however in a similar time they show up with new bugs which don't have an answer until the point when another rendition is discharged and this can be truly disappointing.

Thursday, 11 January 2018

What are Natural Resources?

  Nature resources are the free gift of nature. Examples are Land, water, forest, wildlife, sun light, atmosphere, mineral resources e.g. crude oil, gold, diamond e.t.c.
·        Land: Is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.
·        Water
·        mineral resources
Nature Resources divided into two types:
·        Abiotic: These are resources that come from non-living, non-organic material.
·        Biotic: These resources that are obtained from the living and organic material), such as forest and animal, and the materials that can be obtained from them.
1.     By planting tree and encouraging people to do the same.
2.     Establishment of forest resources e.g. Omo forest, reserve in ogun state.
3.     Supoba forest reserve in Edo state.
4.     Zamfara forest reserve in sokoto.
5.     Discourage indiscriminate falling of trees.
6.     Avoid bush burning.
7.     Only mature trees can be cut down.
1.     Land can be conserved by checking erosion of either water or wing e.g construction of good drainage.
2.     Plant cover crop.
3.     Avoid over grazing of land by animals.
4.     Planting of trees.
5.     Avoid land pollution with either refuse or sewage.
1.     By avoiding hunting to kill the animals.
2.     Avoid bush burning to check either emigration of the animal or either death.
3.     Establishment of game reserve e.g. yankari, game reserve in Bauchi State.
4.     By fencing the area to avoid enrolment of either people or their animal that can destroy the wild life.
1.     Tap should be stopped or closed after fetching water.
2.     Broken pipes (Natural pipe) should be replaced to avoid wasting of water.
3.     Store water in storage tank.
1.     Only the expert should be allowed to mine.
2.     There should be fixed quantity to be mine at a time.
3.     There should be fixed price or price regulation agencies
Agencies responsible for conservation
The federal and state government make conservation law and established conservation agencies e.g. forest guards forest reserve, game reserve, the local government also make conservation by laws, regulation and enfore them the ministry of Agriculture and nature resources is responsible for conservation within the ministry. There are responsible for conservation of forest animals soils and water.
1.     Conservation ensures a wise and a planned use of mineral resources that are continuously available.
2.     Conservation of forest provide timer for making of wooden furniture.
3.     Conservation of water protects aquatic life make water safe for drinking for domestic or industrial uses.
4.     Conservation of soil maintains the fertilizer of soil and prevents erosion.
5.     Ensure continuous availability for a long time.
6.     Conservation of wild life ensure their available.