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Thursday, 11 January 2018

What are Natural Resources?

   
  Nature resources are the free gift of nature. Examples are Land, water, forest, wildlife, sun light, atmosphere, mineral resources e.g. crude oil, gold, diamond e.t.c.
·        Land: Is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.
·        Water
·        mineral resources
Nature Resources divided into two types:
·        Abiotic: These are resources that come from non-living, non-organic material.
·        Biotic: These resources that are obtained from the living and organic material), such as forest and animal, and the materials that can be obtained from them.
WAYS OF CONSERVING FOREST
1.     By planting tree and encouraging people to do the same.
2.     Establishment of forest resources e.g. Omo forest, reserve in ogun state.
3.     Supoba forest reserve in Edo state.
4.     Zamfara forest reserve in sokoto.
5.     Discourage indiscriminate falling of trees.
6.     Avoid bush burning.
7.     Only mature trees can be cut down.
METHOD OF CONSERVING LAND
1.     Land can be conserved by checking erosion of either water or wing e.g construction of good drainage.
2.     Plant cover crop.
3.     Avoid over grazing of land by animals.
4.     Planting of trees.
5.     Avoid land pollution with either refuse or sewage.
METH OD OF CONSERVING WILD LIFE
1.     By avoiding hunting to kill the animals.
2.     Avoid bush burning to check either emigration of the animal or either death.
3.     Establishment of game reserve e.g. yankari, game reserve in Bauchi State.
4.     By fencing the area to avoid enrolment of either people or their animal that can destroy the wild life.
MEHOD OF CONSERVING WATER
1.     Tap should be stopped or closed after fetching water.
2.     Broken pipes (Natural pipe) should be replaced to avoid wasting of water.
3.     Store water in storage tank.
METHOD OF CONSERVING MINERAL RESOURCES
1.     Only the expert should be allowed to mine.
2.     There should be fixed quantity to be mine at a time.
3.     There should be fixed price or price regulation agencies
Agencies responsible for conservation
The federal and state government make conservation law and established conservation agencies e.g. forest guards forest reserve, game reserve, the local government also make conservation by laws, regulation and enfore them the ministry of Agriculture and nature resources is responsible for conservation within the ministry. There are responsible for conservation of forest animals soils and water.
BENEFITS OF CONSERVATION
1.     Conservation ensures a wise and a planned use of mineral resources that are continuously available.
2.     Conservation of forest provide timer for making of wooden furniture.
3.     Conservation of water protects aquatic life make water safe for drinking for domestic or industrial uses.
4.     Conservation of soil maintains the fertilizer of soil and prevents erosion.
5.     Ensure continuous availability for a long time.
6.     Conservation of wild life ensure their available.



Monday, 8 January 2018

WATER

     
     Water is the major component of all living things. It is very essential for the existence of plants and animal, it is made up of two (2) elements which is, “hydrogen and oxygen” with the formula “H20” (water) has no energy values. In pure of form it is colourless, odourless and tasteless. It is about two thirds of the body weight.
Function of water
1.     Water as a good solvent serves as the medium for various biochemical reactions in the body.
2.     It serves as the medium for transportation of substances from one part of the body to another.
3.     Aid the digestion of food and absorption of nutrient in the body.
4.     Keep the living of the membrance of the organs moist and hence reduce fiction.
5.     Regulate body temperature.
6.     Assist in the excretion of water production from the body.

7.     Quenches thirst.

EGG


   Eggs are produced by domesticated bird such as chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea fowl, e.t.c. the hen’s egg of average size weight approximately 56g. They are covered with a productive shell which can either be white or brown in colour. The colour is unrelated to food value and quality of egg.
The structure of an Egg

1.     Eggs are spherical in shape with one and pointed and the other blunt.
2.     Immediately beneath the eggs shell inner membrane which separate of the blunt end of the eggs forming what is known as air space.
3.     At the centre is the egg yolk.
4.     Challeza are two cord like structure that held the egg yolk in position.
5.     Viteline membrane is a membrane that covers the egg yolk.
6.     Immediately after the viteline membrane is the thick egg white.
Food Value of  Egg
1.     Protein: The protein of eggs as a whole is of good biological value and is easily digested. Eggs can be used to replace meat, fish and poultry in diet.
2.     Vitamins: Eggs contain vitamin A, D, and the B complex.
3.     Mineral salt: Eggs are rich in minerals like Iron, sulphur, phosphorus and calcium.
4.     Water: Eggs contains a responsible amount of water. Egg York – 51% eggs while 87%.
5.     Fat: Egg yolk contains fat.
Note: Egg does not contain carbohydrates.  
METHOD OF COOKING EGGS
1.     BOILING
2.     POACHING
3.     SCRAMBLING
4.     FRYING
EGG DISHES
·        SCOTCH EGGs
·        Egg custard
·        Poached egg
·        Eggs savce
·        Fried egg cakes with cheese sauce
·        E.t.c
USES OF EGGS
1.     As a binding medium e.g. fish, cakes, yam balls e.t.c
2.     As a raising agent in cake baking.
3.     For coating food for frying e.g. fish, yam balls.
4.     For glazing pastry, bread dough, biscuits e.t.c for baking.
5.     Eggs are valuable in the diet especially in that of growing children because they are rich in nourishment and are easily digested.

6.     Eggs are used to increases food value and to improve the flavour of foods to which eggs are added e.g. doughnut, pancake e.t.c

Monday, 1 January 2018

FACTS ABOUT MINERAL RESOURCES IN NIGERIA

   
 Nigeria is a country that is blessed with abundant mineral resources. One of the major sources of income for the country is the availability of natural resources like petroleum and others.

Mineral resources are mostly found in the earth crust in such quality, quantity and form that can be considered, there are materials of economic interest. Mineral resources in Nigeria are to be used for the development of a country and also to boost the economy. Many of us do not even know some of the natural/mineral resources Nigeria has. The country has resources like the petroleum, tin, limestone, coal and many others. Below is the list of Mineral and Natural Resources in Nigeria and the States that they can be found
Note this list does not consist of everything that can be found in each state just the major resources.

STATES                                 RESOURCES

ABUJA                        
– Marble
– Clay
– Tantalite
– Cassiterite
– Gold (partially investigated)
– Lead /Zinc (Traces)
– Dolomite
ABIA STATE
– Gold
– Salt
– Limestone
– Lead/Zinc
-Crude Oil
ADAMAWA STATE
– Kaolin
– Bentonite
– Gypsum
– Magnesite
AKWA IBOM STATE
– Lead / Zinc
– Clay
– Limestone
– Uranium (Traced)
– Salt
– Lignite (Traced)
ANAMBRA STATE
– Lead/Zinck
– Clay
– Limestone
– Iron-Ore
– Lignite (Partially investigated)
– Salt
– Glass-Sand
– Phosphate
– Gypsum
-Crude Oil
BAYELSA STATE
– Clay
– Limestone
– Gypsum (partially investigated)
– Uranium (partially investigated)
– Manganese
– Lignite
– Lead/Zinc (Traces)
BAUCHI STATE
– Amethyst (violet)
– Gypsum
– Lead/Zinc (Traces)
– Uranium (partially investigated)
BENUE STATE
– Lead/Zinc
– Limestone
– Iron-Ore
– Coal
– Clay
– Marble
– Salt
– Barytes (traces)
– Gemstones
– Gypsum
BORNO STATE
– Diatomite
– Clay
– Limestone
– Hydro-carbon (oil and gas) Partially investigated) cool
– Gypsum
– Kaolin
– Bentonite
CROSS RIVER STATE
– Limestone
– Uranium
– Manganese
– Lignite
– Lead/Zinc
– Salt
-Crude Oil
DELTA STATE
– Marble
– Glass Sand
– Gypsum
– Lignite
– Iron-Ore
– Kaolin
EBONYI STATE
– Lead
– Gold shocked
– Salt
EDO STATE
– Marble
– Lignite
– Clay
– Limestone
– Iron Ore
– Gypsum
– Glass-sand
– Gold
– Dolomite Phosphate
– Bitumen
-Crude Oil
EKITI STATE
– Kaolin
– Feldspar
– Tatium
– Granite
– Syenite
ENUGU STATE
– Coal
– Limestone
– Lead/Zinc
GOMBE STATE
– Gemstone
– Gypsum
IMO STATE
– Lead/Zinc
– Limestone
– Lignite
– Phosphate
– Marcasite
– Gypsum
– Salt
-Crude Oil
JIGAWAA STATE
– Butytes
KADUNA STATE
– Sapphire
– Kaoline
– Gold
– Clay
– Serpentinite
– Asbestos
– Amethyst
– Kyanite
– Graphite (partially investigated)
– Selenite
– Mica (Traces)
– Aquamarine
– Ruby
– Rock Crystal
– Topaz
– Flopper
– Tourmaline
– Gemstone
– Tentalime
KANO STATE
– Prrochinre
– Cassiterite
– Copper
– Glass – Sand
– Gemstone
– Lead/Zinc
– Tantalite
KATSINA STATE
– Kaolin
– Marble
– Salt
KEBBI STATE
– Gold
KOGI STATE
– Iron-Ore
– Kaolin
– Gypsum
– Feldspar
– Goal
– Marble
– Dolomite
– Talc
– Tantalite
KWARA STATE
– Gold
– Marble
– Iron-Ore
– Cassiterite
– Columbite
– Tantalite
– Feldspar (Traces)
– Mica (Traces)
LAGOS STATE
– Glass-sand
– Clay
– Bitumen
– Crude Oil
NASARAWA STATE
– Beryl (Emerald)
– Aquamarine and
– Heliodor)
– Dolomite/Marble
– Sapphire
– Tourmaline
– Quartz- Amethyst (Topaz, gamet)
– Zircon
– Tantalite
– Cassiterite
– Columbite
– Lamanite
– Galena
– Iron-Ore
– Barytes
– Feldspar
– Limestone
– Mica
– Cooking coal
– Talc
– Cay
– Salt
– Chalcopyrite
NIGER STATE
– Gold
– Talc
– Lead/Zinc
OGUN STATE
– Phosphate
– Clay
– Feldspar (traces)
– Kaolin
– Limestone
– Gemstone
– Bitumen
ONDO STATE
– Bitumen
– Kaolin
– Gemstone
– Gypsum
– Feldspar
– Granite
– Clay
– Glass-sand
– Dimension stones
– Limestone
– Coal
-Crude Oil
OSUN STATE
– Gikd
– Talc
– Tourmaline
– Tourmaline
– Columbite
– Granite
OYO STATE
– Kaoline
– Marble
– Clay
– Sillimanite
– Talc
– Gold
– Cassiterite
– Aqua Marine
– Dolomite
– Gemstone
– Tantalite
PLATEAU STATE
– Emerald
– Tin
– Marble
– Granite
– Tantalite/columbite
– Lead/Zinc
– Barytes
– Iron-Ore
– Kaolin
– Belonite
– Cassiterite
– Pyrochlore
– Clay
– Coal
– Wolfram
– Salt
– Bismuth
– Fluoride
– Molybdenite
– Gemstone
– Bauxite
RIVER STATE
– Glass-sand
– Clay
– Marble
– Lignite (traces)
-Crude Oil
SOKOTO STATE
Kaolin
– Gold
= Limestone
– Phosphate
– Gypsum
– silica-sand
– Clay
– Laterite
– Potash
– Flakes
– Granite
– Gold
– Salt
TARABA STATE
– Kaolin
– Lead/Zinc
YOBE STATE
– Tintomite
– Soda Ash (partially Investigated)
ZAMFARA STATE
– Goal
– Cotton
– Gold


DATA OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN STATE/NIGERIA.

Below are some top facts about the mineral resources found in Nigeria.
1. Petroleum & Gas: Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) is the Oil Corporation through which the federal government of Nigeria regulates and participates in the country’s petroleum industry. Petroleum and nature gas goes hand in hand, which is the main source of the Nigerian economy is said to be first founded in Oloibiri in Bayelsa state, this was in the year 1959. 2.5million barrels of crude oil are produced daily while the gas reserves are 160 - 180 trillion cubic meters. Nigeria has four (4) currently refineries, two in port Harcourt (PHRC), and one each in Kaduna (KRPC) and warri (WRPC).

2. Coal: Is a mineral resource in Nigeria was first discovered in 1909 at Enugu and exploration of coal started at the ogubate mine in 1918. Research has also shown that Nigeria coal is one of the best coal in the world because of its low sulphur and ash content which makes it eco-friendly, Nigeria has nearly 3 billion tones of coal reserves in 17 coal fields and only over 600 tones of the proven reserve is present.
Composition:
·        Primary – Carbon
·        Secondary –  Hydrogen
- Sulfur
- Oxygen
 - Nitrogen

3. Rock salt: Is one of the highest in demand mineral resources in Nigeria. The rock salt is used in the production of caustic soda, table salt, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide and many others. It should be known that about 1.5million tonnes of rock salt are being deposited in Nigeria.

4. Lead/zinc: Do you know that an estimated amount of 10million tonnes of lead/zinc veins are spread in different states of Nigeria, which is like the Abuja, Enugu, Kano, Cross Rivers and many other states. In the east-central area of Nigeria, about 5million tonnes of lead/zinc are available.

5. Iron ore: Are rock and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted. The ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in colour from dark grey, bright yellow, or deep purple to rusty red. The national iron ore company was founded in 1979. 3billion tonnes of Iron ore is said to be available in Nigeria, iron ore is present in different states in Nigeria, like the FCT Abuja, Enugu, Kogi and the Niger state. It should also be known as a fact that Nigerians has two (2) steel companies, although they are not functional, one is located at Aladja in Delta state, while the other is in Ajaokuta.

6. Gemstone: Many do not believe that Nigeria has gemstone, but it is a fact, now you know. The gemstones in Nigeria are regarded as one of the best in the world today, they are found in Kaduna, Bauchi and Plateau state. Some of the gemstones which are found are sapphire, ruby, emerald and some others.

7. Bitumen:  In the 1900 Bitumen was discovered and exploration started in 1905. Bitumen which is used in constructing roads for some states like Lagos, Ogun state, Ondo state and Edo state are all imported. The bitumen reserve which we have in Nigeria is twice the volume of the existing crude oil in the country. It should also be known as a fact that these large reserves have been exploited.

8. GYPSUM: Is one of the mineral resources which we use in the production of cement, plaster of Paris (POP), chalk and many others. One billion of gypsum deposits are spread out in some states in Nigeria like the Delta state, Edo state, Gombe, Kogi and some others.

9. Talc: The only Talc plant in Nigeria is the Raw Materials Research Development Council (RMRDC). Talc is a mineral resource in Nigeria, it is found in some states in Nigeria like the Osun state, Kogi state, Oyo state, Niger state and so many others. Talc deposits in Nigeria are estimated to be about 4 billion tonnes.

10. Bentonite and Barite: These are the main constituents of the mud which is used in the drilling of oil wells. The Bentonite and the Barite is actually a natural resource in Nigeria. 700 million tonnes of this mineral resource is spread in some states like Adamawa, Borno, and Plateau state while over 7.5million tonnes of barite have been discovered in Taraba and Bauchi state.