Saturday, 8 February 2014

Dichlorvos, organophosphate - DDVP

 Dichlorvos is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide widely used in developing countries. Because of its high acute toxicity and the consequent dangers to workers, there are concerns whether safe use is possible under such conditions.

    It is effective against mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and whiteflies in greenhouse, outdoor fruit, and vegetable crops. It is also used in the milling and grain handling industries and to treat a variety of parasitic worm infections in dogs, livestock, and humans. It is fed to livestock to control bot fly larvae in the manure. It acts against insects as both a contact and a stomach poison. It is available as an aerosol and soluble concentrate. It is also used in pet collars and "no-pest strips" as pesticide-impregnated plastic. In this form it has recently been labeled for use against bed bugs

Abstract

In this study, in order to elucidate the toxic nuclear effects of dichlorvos, freshly isolated human peripheral blood lymphocytes were incubated with 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 microg/mL of dichlorvos. According to the results, dichlorvos induced micronuclei, decreased the mitotic and replication indexes. It is a genotoxic product causing chromosomal damage (an increase in micronucleus) and cell death (decrease in mitotic and replication indexes).

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Chronic toxicity
Reproductive effects
The HSE review found: "No fertility studies which are both adequately conducted and reported... Individually no study is considered adequate to assess the teratogenic potential of dichlorvos in any species". In spite of these data gaps, government ministers ruled that: "Overall the weight of evidence indicates that dichlorvos does not present a risk to fertility and reproduction in humans.

Genotoxicity
There is evidence that dichlorvos is mutagenic in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells in vitro, but that there is no evidence for mutagenicity in whole animals, when it is rapidly degraded.

Environmental effects
   Dichlorvos is toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods are more sensitive than fish. It is highly toxic to birds and to honey bees.

   However, by applying an arbitrary safety factor of 100 to the toxic dose for the most sensitive species, the Water Research Centre has recommended an annual average level of 0.001 µg/l (parts per billion) for freshwater species, and 0.04 µg/l for marine life in saline waters.

 Food residues
Because dichlorvos degrades fairly rapidly it is not generally found as a residue on food. The UK Working Party on Pesticide Residues monitors residues in food, and dichlorvos is rarely found if at all.

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